Breastfeeding and Hormonal Contraception: A Scoping Review of Clinical Guidelines, Professional Association Recommendations, and the Literature ★

Postpartum contraceptive use can help prevent short-interval pregnancies, which have been associated with adverse neonatal and maternal health outcomes. Many contraceptive methods are safe for postpartum use, but patients and providers may be confused as to what impact hormonal contraception has on lactation. We performed a scoping review of the most recent U.S.-based guidelines regarding hormonal contraception on lactation to provide synthesis and recommendations to aid providers in counseling their patients. We reviewed 1 clinical guideline from the CDC and 2 systematic reviews cited in its references, 6 professional association recommendations, and 28 publications identified through the updated literature review. Progestin-only contraceptive methods continue to demonstrate safety in breastfeeding patients, while low-quality evidence supports concerns of decreased milk supply with combined hormonal contraception.

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